ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT OFFICE BUILDINGS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES (END OF 20TH – BEGINNING OF 21ST CENTURY)
Keywords:architecture, architectural planning, building’s energy-efficiency, energy-efficient office buildings, sustainable development, passive design, solar architecture, solar shading devices, natural lighting, energy-efficient service systems
The purpose this paper is to highlight the international experience of the design and realization of energy-efficient office buildings of the specified period; to analyze positive case studies of office buildings from different continents located in the northern hemisphere with climatic conditions similar to the conditions of Ukraine (North America, Europe, Asia), such countries as: Canada, Germany, China; to explore passive design solutions, as well as active engineering systems, which were applied in the analyzed buildings; to summarize the experience of the design and construction of energy-efficient office buildings, to identify modern trends in their design, and to predict prospects for their further development. Research methodology. Literature review of scientific papers, monographs, online sources, regulatory documents and in-depth critical analysis of three case studies were used as the research methods. The results. The trend was identified that starting from the 1990s there is greater environmental awareness among customers, investors, developers, architects, etc. with the problem of climate change and the need for more sustainable approaches to architectural design. Issues of sustainable development, environmental consciousness, decarbonization and energy efficiency are given high priority at architectural practice. Scientific novelty. The main challenges which modern international architects are facing were identified as well as typical architectural strategies and engineering solutions. Furthermore, it was revealed that energy-efficiency of office buildings is achieved due to the implementation of the principle of adaptability of building facades depending on the season. The principle of adaptability is usually achieved by implementation of transparent double skin facades that open and close depending on the season or weather conditions. Practical significance. The positive experience of design, construction and operation of energy-efficient office buildings in the northern hemisphere with climatic conditions similar to the conditions of Ukraine was revealed, which can be used in Ukrainian domestic architectural practice.
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