ЄВРОПЕЙСЬКИЙ АВІАЦІЙНИЙ ПОСТ-COVID-19 СЦЕНАРІЙ: СПОСТЕРЕЖЕННЯ ТА ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ

Stephan Hobe

Анотація


Мета цієї статті полягає у висвітленні спостережень основних наслідків пандемії COVID-19 на європейський повітряний транспорт, а також окресленні можливих сценаріїв та перспектив відновлення авіаційної галузі. Стаття зосереджена на реакції Європейського Союзу на такі наслідки. Крім того, у статті представлені заходи та пакети для пом’якшення впливу COVID-19 на повітряне сполучення. Методи дослідження: дослідження проводилось із застосуванням загальновизнаних методів наукового пізнання, таких як: аналітичний, порівняльно-правовий, системно-структурний, статистичний та інші. Результати: в результаті академічних досліджень було виявлено основні впливи COVID-19 на європейську авіацію, окреслено поточні заходи Європейського Союзу та міжнародних організацій та представлено сценарій та перспективи розвитку в Європі після COVID-19. Обговорення: пандемія COVID-19 вплинула на європейський повітряний транспорт і спричинила безпрецедентну зупинку повітряного руху, із загальним скороченням міжнародних пасажирів у 50-80% у перші місяці 2020 року порівняно з 2019 роком. Відповідно до прогнозів швидкого відновлення не слід чекати, цифри вказують на те, що лише між кінцем року та початком 2021 року повітряний рух всередині ЄС частково відновиться, очікуючи на 25-30% менше руху літаків та пасажирів порівняно з тими ж місяцями. Реакція Європейського Союзу полягає у заходах, пов’язаних із безпекою, для пом’якшення впливу COVID-19 на повітряне сполучення, розподілу слотів у аеропортах, авіаційними вантажними перевезеннями, захистом пасажирів, державною допомогою. Хоча деякі заходи, ймовірно, залишатимуться тимчасовими за своєю суттю, деякі інші, ймовірно, потребують більше часу для подальшого і ретельного розгляду законодавцями ЄС, такі, наприклад, як ваучери авіакомпаній.


Ключові слова


COVID-19; Європейська авіація; надзвичайні заходи; авіаційні послуги; наземне обслуговування; авіаційні вантажні операції; розподіл слотів у аеропорту; захист пасажирів; ваучери авіакомпаній; державна допомога; заходи, пов’язані з безпекою; EASA

Посилання


The present article adopts the terminology «COVID-19».

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Travel and immigration bans and restrictions are introduced or amended on a constant basis. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) provides an up-to-dated list of all travel restrictions at: https://www.iatatravelcentre.com/ international-travel-document-news/1580226297.htm (last access 22 June 2020).

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The Schengen Area is an area, established in 1985, comprising 26 countries that have formally abolished all passport and other types of border and migration control at their mutual borders. The area functions as a single jurisdiction for travel purpose, with a common visa policy. The Area currently comprise 22 EU Member States and 4 non-EU Members (Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Lichtenstein). As of today, the regulation concerning the use of the Schengen Area has been consolidated by way of the so-called Schengen Borders Code. See, Regulation (EU) No. 2016/339 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2016 on a Union Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across the borders (Schengen Borders Code), OJ L 77, 23.3.2016, 1-52.

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British Airways has reached a deal to temporarily suspend more than 30,000 of its cabin crew and ground staff. The airline, which has grounded most of its fleet due to the coronavirus, has been locked in talks with unions for more than a week. Under the jobs retention scheme, the government funds 80% of someone’s salary capped at a maximum of £2,500 a month. But union Unite said there would be no cap on earnings under its agreement with BA. The union also said no BA staff would be made redundant during the coronavirus crisis. See, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-52130021 (last visit 22 June 2020).

In the months of March and April 2020, Air France has gradually reduced its activities up to 90% and, consequently, temporarily laid off or sus-pended 80% of its workforce. See, https://www. aerotime.aero/clement.charpentreau/24679-air-france-to-temporarily-lay-off-80-of-staff-due-to-coronavirus (last access 22 June 2020); https://www.franceinter.fr/economie/crise-du-covid-suppressions-d-emplois-en-perspective-chez-air-france-qui-subit-de-lourdes-pertes (last access 1 June 2020).

Lufthansa reached agreements with its works council and trade unions to introduce short-time working for at least 27,000 cabin and ground staff in Frankfurt and Munich. It also said that members of the executive board had waived 20% of their compensation in solidarity with all employee group. The company’s CEO Carsten Spohr said in remarks posted on the German aviation group’s website on Friday. «We are fighting for the future of this company and the future of the roughly 130,000 employees of the Lufthansa Group in what is currently the greatest challenge of our recent history». See, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-lufthansa-jobs/two-thirds-of-lufthansas-staff-to-shorten-work-hours-due-to-coronavirus-idUSKBN21J4FM (last access 22 June 2020); https://www.spiegel.de/ consent-a-?target Url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww. spiegel.de% 2Fwirt schaft%2 Funternehmen%2Fcoronavirus-lufthansa-schickt-87-000-mitarbeiter-in-kurzarbeit (last access 22 June 2020).

Virgin Atlantic has announced its intention to cut 3000 jobs in the UK and to end its operations at London Gatwick Airport, while applying for emergency loan from the Government. See, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-52542038 (last access 1 June 2020). Similarly, Lufthansa, Air France, Alitalia and almost all major EU air carriers have announced restructuring plans designed to considerably reduce the number of their employees.

On the liberalisation of air services in the EU, see, generally See, among others, Stephan Hobe, Nikolai von Ruckteschell and David Heffer-nan (eds.), Cologne Compendium on Air Law in Europe, (Carl Heymanns, 2013), 221-223; Pablo Mendes De Leon, Introduction to Air Law, Tenth Edition, (Kluwer Law International, 2017), 96-99.

Council Regulation No. 95/93 of 18 January 1993 on common rules for the allocation of slots at Community airports, OJ L 14, 22.1.1993, 1-6.

Pursuant to Art. 10 (3) of the Regulation: «Slots which are allocated to an air carrier for the operation of a scheduled service or a programmed non-scheduled service on a particular moment of a day and for the same day of the week over a recog-nizable period up to one scheduling period shall not entitle that air carrier to the same series of slots in the next equivalent period, unless the air carrier can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the coordina-tor that they have been operated, as cleared by the coordinator, by that air carrier for at least 80 % of the time during the period for which they have been allocated».

See, in literature, Christoph Naumann, «New Proposal to Amend the System of Airport Slot Allocation in the European Union», 37 Air & Space Law 3 (2012), 185-211; Katja Brecke, «Airport Slot Allocation: Quo Vadis, EU?», 36 Air & Space Law 3 (2011), 183-200.

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Draft Regulation (EU) No. 2020/46 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 March 2020 amending Council Regulation (EEC) No. 95/93 on common rules for the alloca-tion of slots at Community airports, PE-CONS 4/1/20.

Communication from the European Com-mission, Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EC) No. 95/93 on common rules for the allocation of slots at Community airports, COM(2020) 111 Final, (13 March 2020).

Regulation (EC) No. 1008/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 September 2008 on common rules for the operation of air services in the Community, OJ L 293, 31.10.2008, 3-20.

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Art. 5 of Regulation (EC) No. 1008/2008.

Communication from the European Com-mission, Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EC) No. 1008/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on common rules for the operation of air services in the Community in view of the COVID-19 pandemic, COM(2020) 178 Final, 29.4.2020.

Regulation (EU) No. 2020/696 of the Euro-pean Parliament and of the Council of 25 May 2020 amending Regulation (EC) No. 1008/2008 on common rules for the operation of air services in the Community in view of the COVID-19 pandemic, OJ L 165, 27.5.2020, 1-6.

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Regulation (EC) No. 261/2004 of the Euro-pean Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 establishing common rules on compensation and assistance to passengers in the event of denied boarding and of cancellation or long delay of flights, and repealing Regulation (EEC) No. 295/91, OJ L 46, 17.2.2004, 1-8.

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The IATA predicted that the worst may still yet to come for the airline industry. Acknowledging that Many European governments have recognized the strategic importance of their aviation industries and provided support, the IATA firmly remarks that much of the financial aid has been in the form of loans, which are adding to the debt burden for airlines and which will hinder their ability to invest in new services, cleaner aircraft, and expanded employment going forward. See, https://www.iata. org/ en/pressroom/pr/2020-06-18-01/ (last access 22 June 2020).

Communication from the European Com-mission, temporary framework for State aid measures to support the economy in the current COVID-19 outbreak, C(2020) 1863 Final, 19.3.2020. The Commission notes that: «undertak-ings may not only face insufficient liquidity, but they may also suffer significant damage because of the COVID-19 outbreak. The exceptional nature of the COVID-19 outbreak means that such damages could not have been foreseen, are of a significant scale and hence put undertakings in conditions that sharply differ from the market conditions in which they normally operate. Even healthy undertakings, well prepared for the risks inherent to the normal course of business, can struggle in these exceptional circumstances, to such an extent that their viability may be undermined».

Communication from the European Com-mission, coordinated response to the COVID-19 outbreak, COM(2020) 112 Final, 13.3.2020.

Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, OJ C 326, 26.10.2012, 47-390.

See, for example, Pablo Mendes De Leon, Introduction to Air Law, Tenth Edition, (Kluwer Law International, 2017).

See, Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No. 2019/947 of 24 May 2019 on the rules and procedures for the operation of unmanned air-craft, OJ L 152, 11.6.2019, 45-71.

European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), EASA Guidelines – COVID-19: Guidance on the maintenance of crew members in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, 26.3.2020

European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and European Centre for Disease Preven-tion and Control (ECDC), COVID-19 Aviation Health Safety Protocol: operational guidelines for the management of air passengers and aviation personnel in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, 21.5.2020.


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