• Oleksandr Zaporozhets National Aviation University
  • Kateryna Synylo National Aviation University



air pollution, aircraft engine emission, auxiliary power unit, concentration, emission index, emission inventory, particle matter, non-volatile particle, volatile particle, particle size distribution


Purpose: The effects of aircraft engine emissions within the planetary boundary layer under the landing/ take-off operations contribute sufficiently to deterioration of air pollution in the vicinity of the airports and nearby residential areas. Currently the primary object of airport air quality are the nitrogen oxides and particle matter (PM10, PM2.5 and ultrafine PM) emissions from aircraft engine exhausts as initiators of photochemical smog and regional haze, which may further impact on human health. Analysis of PM emission inventory results at major European airports highlighted on sufficiently high contribution of aircraft engines and APU. The paper aims to summarize the knowledge on particle size distributions, particle effective density, morphology and internal structure of aircraft PM, these properties are critical for understanding of the fate and potential health impact of PM. It also aims to describe the basic methods for calculation of emission and dispersion of PM, produced by aircrafts under the LTO operations. Methods: analytical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation is used to calculate the maximum PM concentration from point emission source. The PM concentration varies inversely proportional to the wind velocity u1 and directly proportional to the vertical component of the turbulent exchange coefficient k1/u1. The evaluation of non-volatile PM concentration includes the size and shape of PM. PolEmiCa calculates the distributions of PM fractions for aircraft and APU exhausts (height of installation was given H=4,5m like for Tupolev-154). Results: The maximum concentration of PM in exhaust from APU is higher and appropriate distance is less than in case for gas. PM polydispersity leads to the separation of maximums concentration in space for individual fractions on the wind direction and therefore it contributes to the reduction of maximum total concentration. Discussion:But although the APU has contributed significantly to the emission of aircraft at airports, APU emissions are not certificated by ICAO or any other responsible for that authority.It is quite actual task for local air quality to development model and find measurement techniques to identify aircraft engine and APU contribution to total airport PM pollution.

Author Biographies

Oleksandr Zaporozhets, National Aviation University

D. Sc., Professor.

Director of Institute of ecological safety, National Aviation University

Education: Kiev Institute of Civil Aviation Engineers, 1978

Research area: Development of Models and Methods of Information Provision for Environment Protection from Civil Aviation Impact

Kateryna Synylo, National Aviation University

PhD, Lecturer.

Safety of Human Activity Chair, Institute of ecological safety, National Aviation University

Education: Odessa Hydrometeorological institute (2001).

Research area: Methods of local air quality regulation inside the airport


Herndon S., Jayne J., Lobo P. (2008) Commercial aircraft engine emissions characterization of in-use aircraft at Hartsfielde Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol.42, №6, pp.1877 – 1883.

Carslaw D., Beevers S., Ropkins K., Bell M. (2006) Detecting and quantifying aircraft and other on-airport contributions to ambient nitrogen oxides in the vicinity of a large international airport. Atmos. Environ., vol.40, №28, pp.5424 – 5434.

Peace H., Maughan J., Owen B., Raper D.(2006) Identifying the contribution of different airport related sources to local urban air quality. Environ. Modell. Softw., vol. 21, №4, pp.532 – 538.

Jung K., Artigas F., Shin J. (2011) Personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to VOCs in the immediate vicinity of a local airport. Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 173, №1, pp.555 – 567

Eurocontrol Statics@Forecast Services, (2004) Long Term Forecast of Flights (2004-2025). Brussels: ESS, 40 p.

Barrett S., Britter R., Waitz I. (2010) Global mortality attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 44, №19, pp.7736 – 7742.

Koo J., Wang Q., Henze D.K. (2013) Spatial sensitivities of human health risk to intercontinental and high-altitude pollution. Atmos. Environ., vol. 71, pp.140 –147

Stedman J., Linehan E., King, K. (1999) Quantification of the Health Effects of Air Pollution in the UK for the Review of the National Air Quality Strategy/AEAT4715// (Accessed 2004).

Morawska L., Ristovski Z., Jayaratne E. (2008) Ambient nano and ultrafine particles from motor vehicle emissions: characteristics, ambient processing and implications on human exposure. Atmos. Environ., vol. 42, №35, pp.8113 – 8138.

Heland J., Schäfer K. (1998) Determination of major combustion products in aircraft exhausts by FTIR emission spectroscopy. Atmos. Environ. vol.32, pp.3067 – 3072.

Popp P., Bishop G., Stedman D. (1999) Method for commercial aircraft nitric oxide emission measurements. Environ. Sci.Technol., vol.33, №9, pp.1542-1544

Schafer K., Jahn C., Sturm P. (2003) Aircraft emission measurements by remote sensing methodologies at airports. Atmos. Environ., vol. 37, pp.5261-5271.

Herndon S., Shorter J., Zahniser M. (2004) NO and NO2 emission ratios measured from in-use commercial aircraft during taxi and takeoff. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 38, pg.6078 – 6084

Celikel A, Duchene N, Fuller I, Peters S. (2005) Airport local air quality studies: concept document. EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre EEC/SEE/2005/003

Schurmann G., Schafer K. (2007) The impact of NOx, CO and VOC emissions on the air quality of Zurich airport. Atmos. Environ., vol. 41, pp.103-118.

Schäfer K, Emeis S, Jahn C. (2008) Airport air quality studies in Athens. First results of measurement campaign. – Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology, pg. 237–44.

Johnson G., Mazaheri M., Ristovski Z., Morawska L. (2008) Plume capture technique for the remote characterization of aircraft engine emissions. Environ.Sci. Technol., vol. 42, №6, pp.4850-4856

Bossioli E., Tombrou M., Helmis C. (2013) Issues related to aircraft take-off plumes in a mesoscale photochemical model. Atmos. Environ., vol.456-457, pp.69-81

Herndon S., Onasch T., Frank B. (2005) Particulate emissions from in-use commercial aircraft. Aerosol Sci. Technol., vol. 39, 2005, pp.799 – 809.

Wey C., Anderson B., Wey C. (2007) Overview of the aircraft particle emissions experiment. J. Propul. Power, vol.23, №7, pp.898 – 905

Mazaheri M., Johnson G., Morawska L. (2009) Particle and gaseous emissions from commercial aircraft at each stage of the landing and takeoff cycle. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol.43, №2, pp.441 – 446.

Dodson R., Houseman E., Morin B., Levy J. (2009) An analysis of continuous black carbon concentrations in proximity to an airport and major roadways. Atmos. Environ., vol.43, №24, pp.3764 – 3773

Kinsey J. (2009) Characterization of Emissions from Commercial Aircraft Engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3. EPA/600/R-09/130. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C, pp. 271-273.

Kinsey J., Hays M., Dong Y. (2011) Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3. Environ. Sci.Technol., vol.45, №8, pp.3415 – 3421

Hsu H., Adamkiewicz G., Houseman A. (2013) Contributions of aircraft arrivals and departures to ultrafine particle counts near Los Angeles International Airport. Sci. Tot. Environ., 444, pp.347 –355

Hu S., Fruin S., Kozawa K. (2009) Aircraft emission impacts in a neighborhood adjacent to a general aviation airport in Southern California. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol.43, №21, pp.8039 – 8045

Zhu Y., Fanning E., Yu R., Zhang Q., Froines J. (2011) Aircraft emissions and local air quality impacts from takeoff activities at a large International Airport. Atmos. Environ., vol.45, pp.6526-33

Environmental Statement 2005. Envi¬ronmental Protection and Management at Frankfurt Main Airport (2005). Fraport AG. pp. 55–59.

Umweltbericht. Umwelterklärung 2008 mit Umweltprogramm bis 2011 für den Standort Flughafen Frankfurt Main (2008). Fraport AG. pp.100–104.

Hüttig G, Bleschmidt F, Hotes A. (1999) Entwicklung und Erprobung einer Methode zur Bewertung der Schadstoffimmissionen in der Umgebung von Flugplätzen, Band I. Ermittlung der Emissionen, Forschungbericht, 86 p.

Stettler M., Eastham S., Barrett S. (2011) Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part I: emissions. Atmos. Environ. J., vol.45, №31. pp. 5415 –5424.

Kinsey J., Timko M., Herndon S. (2012) Determination of the emissions from an aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel experiment (AAFEX). Air &Waste Management Association Journal, №62, pp.420 –430.

Robinson A., Grieshop A., Donahue N., Hunt S. (2010) Updating the conceptual model for fine particle mass emissions from combustion systems. JAWMA, vol.60, №1, pp.1204 – 1222.

Presto A., Nguyen N., Ranjan M., Reeder A. (2011) Fine particle and organic vapor emissions from staged tests of an in-use aircraft engine. Atmos. Environ, vol.45, №21, pp.3603 – 3612

imko M., Onasch T., Northway M., Jayne J. (2010) Gas turbine engine Emissions part II: chemical properties of particulate matter. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol.132, №6, 14 p.

Lobo P., Hagen D., Whitefield, P. (2012) Measurement and analysis of aircraft engine PM emissions downwind of an active runway at the Oakland International Airport. Atmos. Environ., vol.61, pp.114 – 123.

Klapmeyer M., Marr L. (2012) CO2, NOx, and particle emissions from aircraft and support activities at a regional airport. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol.46, №20, pp.10974 – 10981.

Wey C., Anderson B., Wey C. (2007) Overview of the aircraft particle emissions experiment. J. Propul. Power, vol.23, №5, pp.898 – 905

Kinsey J., Dong Y., Williams D., Logan R. (2010) Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the aircraft particle emissions experiment (APEX) 1 to 3. Atmos. Environ., vol.44, pg.2147 – 2156

Anderson B., Branham H., Hudgins C. (2005) Experiment to Characterize Aircraft Volatile Aerosol and Trace-Species Emissions (EXCAVATE). NASA/TM-2005-213783. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. August 2005, 175 p.

Mazaheri M., Bostrom T., Johnson G., Morawska L. (2013) Composition and morphology of particle emissions from in-use aircraft during takeoff and landing. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 47, № 10, pp.5235 –5242.

Zhu Y., Fanning E., Yu R., Zhang Q. (2011) Froines J. Aircraft emissions and local air quality impacts from takeoff activities at a large International Airport. Atmos. Environ., vol. 45, №36, pp.3143-3155.

ICAO Doc 9889. Airport Ait Quality (2011) 1st ed., 200 p

Coordinating Research Council (2004), Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties, Inc., Third Edition, CRC Report No.635, Alpharetta, GA, USA, 144 p.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1999) Aviation and the Global Atmosphere, Cambridge University Press, 53 p.

Metodika racheta konzentrazii v atmosphernom vozduhe vrednyh veshestv, soderzhaschihsya v vybrosah predpriyatiy. OND-86 (1986) [Methodology of air pollutants concentrations in atmospheric air in results of industrial emissions] Leningrad, Hydrometeoizdat, 97 p.

Berlyand M.E. (1985) Prognoz I regulirovanie zagryazneniya vozduha [Prediction and regulation of air pollution]. Leningrad, Hydrometeoizdat, 272 p.

Byzova N. L., Ivanov V. N., Garger E.K. (1989) Turbulentnost v pogranichnom sloe atmosphery [Turbulence in boundary layer of atmosphere]. Leningrad, Hydrometeoizdat, 263 p.

Lamli Dz., Panovskyy G. (1966) Struktura atmosphernoy turbulentnosti [Structure of atmospheric turbulence]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 202 p.

McBean G.A. (1979) Planetary boundary layer. – WMO Tech. Note, № 165, 202 p.

Udin M.I., Shvez M.E. (1940) Stazionarnaya model raspredeleniya vetra s vysotoy v turbulentnoy atmosphere [stationary model of wind distribution with altitude in turbulent atmosphere]. Leningrad, GGO, pp.42-45.

Berlyand M.E., Onikul P.I. (1968) Phizicheskie osnovi racheta rasseivaniya v atmosphere promyshlennyh vybrosov [Physical basis for air pollutants dispersion in atmosphere]. Leningrad, GGO, pp.3 – 27

Berlyand M.E., Onikul P.I. (1971) K obobscheniu teorii rasseivaniya promyshlennyh vybrosov v atmosphere [By a generalization of the theory of scattering of industrial emissions into the atmosphere]. Leningrad, GGO, pp.3 – 27

Zaporozhets O. Synylo K. (2005) [POLEMICA – tool for air pollution and aircraft engine emission assessment in airport]. The Proc. Second World Congress “Aviation in the XXI-st century”. Кyiv, pp. 4.22–4.29

Zaporozhets O. Synylo K. (2015) [PolEmiCA Local Air Quality Model Evaluation]. AVIA-2015: The Proc. XII International scientific and technical conference. Кyiv, 2015. pp.29.12 – 29.15.

Zaporozhets O. Synylo K. (2015) Modelling and measurement of aircraft engine emissions inside the airport area. Proceeding of the NAU, № 2, pp. 65–71.



How to Cite

Zaporozhets, O., & Synylo, K. (2016). PM EMISSIONS PRODUCED BY AIRCRAFT UNDER THE OPERATIONS AT THE AIRPORT. Advances in Aerospace Technology, 69(4), 77–88.




Most read articles by the same author(s)