HOW MIGHT ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES AFFECT BEHAVIOUR AND EMOTIONS?
Keywords:entrepreneurship, positive emotion, negative emotion, self-efficacy, opportunity, psychological origin
It’s essential to comprehend individuals’ comprehension of what occurs in their brains. Given a writing survey of business enterprise brain science and conduct, and a particular featuring of the subarea’s identity, understanding, feeling, mentality, and self, this article exhibits an audit of this present field’s past and current issues points, speculations, and techniques. In the mix with review results from enterprise conduct scientists’ ebb and flow work and sentiments on the exploration boondocks in those angles, this article gives bits of knowledge and proposals to future research headings.
Gartner, W. B. (1988). Who is an entrepreneur? Is the wrong question. American Journal of Small Business, 12, pp. 11–32.
Drnovsek, M., Wincent, J., & Cardon, M. (2010). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and business startup: developing a multi-dimensional definition. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 16(4), pp. 329–348.
Markman, G. D., Baron, R. A., & Balkin, D. B. (2005). Are perseverance and self-efficacy costless? Assessing entrepreneurs’ regretful thinking. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(1), pp. 1–19.
Mueller, S. L., & Dato-on, M. C. (2013). A cross cultural study of gender-role orientation and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9(1), pp. 1–20.
Naktiyok, A., Karabey, C. N., & Gulluce, A. C. (2010). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention: the Turkish case. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(4), pp. 419–435.
Alvarez, S. A., & Busenitz, L. W. (2001). The entrepreneurship of resource-based theory. Journal of Management, 27(6), pp. 755–775.
Baron R.A. (1998). Cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurship: why and when entrepreneurs think differently than other people. J Bus Ventur 13: pp. 275–294.
Busenitz, L. W., & Barney, J. B. (1997). Differences between entrepreneurs and managers in large organizations: biases and heuristics in strategic decision-making. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(1), pp. 9–30.
Corbett, A. C. (2005). Experiential learning within the process of opportunity identification and exploitation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29(4), pp. 473–491.
Lindberg, E., &Wincent, J. (2011). Goal commitment and performance: an empirical study incorporating rolestress literature to reveal functional and dysfunctional influences. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(11), pp. 2634–2655.
Bandura A (1977a). Social learning theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Bandura A (1977b). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 84: pp. 191–215.
Bandura A (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Bandura A (1997). Self-efficacy the exercise of control. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
Bandura A (1989). Self-regulation of motivation and action through internal standards and goal systems. In: Pervin LA (ed) Goal concepts in personality and social psychology. Hillsdale, Erlbaum.
Hofstede G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. McGraw Hill, London.
Gecas V. (1989). The social psychology of self-efficacy. Annu Rev Sociol 15:291–316.
Damasio A. (1994). Descartes’ error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. GP Putnam’s Sons, New York.
Fletcher C. (1999). The implications of research on gender differences in self-assessment and 360-degree appraisal. Hum Resour Manag J 9: pp. 39–46.
Carter N.M., Williams M., Reynolds P.D. (1997). Discontinuance among new firms in retail: the influence of initial resources, strategy and gender. J Bus Ventur 12: pp. 125–145.
Neergaard H.N., Eythórsdóttir I. (2008). The Icelandic Female Entrepreneur: self-efficacy and growth intentions. In: 31st ICSB conference, Belfast.
Hackett G., Betz N.E. (1981). A self-efficacy approach to the career development of women. J Vocat Behav 18: pp. 326–339.
Sandemose A. (1933). En flyktning krysser sitt spor. Vinters Forlag, Oslo.
Wood R.E., Bandura A. (1989). Impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision making. J Pers Soc Psychol 56: pp. 407–415.
Gist, M. E. (1987). Self-efficacy: Implications for organizational behavior and human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 12(3), pp. 472–485.
Boyd N.G., Vozikis G.S. (1994). The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrep Theory Pract 18: pp. 63–77.
Scherer R.F., Adams J.F., Wiebe F.A. (1989). Role model performance effects on development of entrepreneurial career preference. Entrep Theory Pract 13: pp. 53–71.
Scherer K. (2005). What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Soc Sci Inf 44(4): pp. 695–729.
Krueger N.F., Brazeal D.V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrep Theory Pract 18: pp. 91–104.
MacMillan I.C., Block Z., Narasimha P.N. (1986). Corporate venturing: alternatives, obstacles encountered, and experience effects. J Bus Ventur 1: pp. 177–192.
Peterman N.E., Kennedy J. (2003). Enterprise education: influencing students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship. Entrep Theory Pract 28: pp. 129–144.
Lucas W.A., Cooper S.Y. (2004). Enhancing self-efficacy to enable entrepreneurship: the case of CMI’s connections. MIT Working Paper, Cambridge, MA.
Krueger N.F., Reilly M.D., Carsrud A.L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. J Bus Ventur 15: pp. 411–433.
Krueger N.F. (2007).What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrep Theory Pract 31(1): pp. 123–138.
Kourilsky M.L., Walstad W.B. (1998). Entrepreneurship and female youth: knowledge, attitudes, gender differences, and educational practices. J Bus Ventur 13: pp. 77–89.
Anna A.L., Chandler G.N. (2000). Women business owners in traditional and non-traditional industries. J Bus Ventur 15: pp. 280–303.
Drnovsek M., Glas M. (2002). The entrepreneurial self-efficacy of nascent entrepreneurs: the case of two economies in transition. J Enterpr Cult 10: pp. 107–131.
Forbes D.P. (2005). The effects of strategic decision making on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Entrep Theory Pract 29: pp. 599–626.
Hao Z., Seibert S.E., Hills G. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. J Appl Psychol 90: pp. 1265–1272.
Hmieleski K.M., Baron R.A. (2008). When does entrepreneurial self-efficacy enhance versus reduce firm performance? Strateg Entrep J 2: pp. 57–72.
Wilson F., Kickul J.R., Martino D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: implications for entrepreneurship education. Entrep Theory Pract 31: pp. 387–406.
Hmieleski K.M., Corbett A.C. (2008). The contrasting interaction effects of improvisational behavior with entrepreneurial self-efficacy on new venture performance and entrepreneur work satisfaction. J Bus Ventur 23: pp. 482–496.
Baron R.A. (1976). The reduction of human aggression: a field study of the influence of incompatible responses. J Appl Soc Psychol 6: pp. 260–274.
Baron R.A. (1984). Reducing organizational conflict: an incompatible response approach. J Appl Psychol 69: pp. 272–279.
Baron, R. A. (1998). Cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurship: why and when entrepreneurs think differently than other people. Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4), pp. 275–294.
Baron R.A., Ward T. (2004). Expanding entrepreneurial cognitions’ toolbox: potential contributions from the field of cognitive science. Entrep Theory Pract 28: pp. 553–573.
Hmieleski K.M., Baron R.A. (2009). Entrepreneurs’ optimism and new venture performance: a social cognitive perspective. Acad Manag J 52(3): pp. 473–488.
Mitchell R.K., Busenitz L.W., Bird B., Gaglio C.M., McMullen J.S., Morse E.A., Smith J.B. (2007). The central question in entrepreneurial cognition research 2007. Entrep Theory Pract 31(1): pp. 1–27.
Koellinger P.D., Minniti M., Schade C. (2007). I think I can, I think I can – overconfidence and entrepreneurial behavior. J Econ Psychol 28(4): pp. 502–527.
Koellinger P. (2008). Why are some entrepreneurs more innovative than others? Small Bus Econ 31: pp. 21–37.
Galasso A., Simcoe T.S. (2011). CEO overconfidence and innovation. Manag Sci 57: pp. 1469–1484.
Hirshleifer D., Low A., Theoh S.H. (2012). Are overconfident CEOs better innovators? J Financ 67: pp. 1457–1498.
Arora P., Haynie J., Laurence G. (2013). Counterfactual thinking and entrepreneurial self-efficacy: the moderating role of self-esteem and dispositional affect. Entrep Theory Pract 37(2): pp. 359–385.
Gaglio C.M., Katz J.A. (2001). The psychological basis of opportunity identification: entrepreneurial alertness. Small Bus Econ 16: pp. 95–110.
Bougon M.G. (1992). Congregate cognitive maps: a unified dynamic theory of organization and strategy. J Manag Stud 29: pp. 369–389.
Fiol C.M., Huff A.S. (1992). Maps for managers: where are we? Where do we go from here? J Manag Stud 29: pp. 267–285.
Hodgkinson G.P., Bown N.J., Maule A.J., Glaister K.W., Pearman A.D. (1999). Breaking the frame: an analysis of strategic cognition and decision making under uncertainty. Strateg Manag J 20: pp. 977–985.
Sarasvathy D.K., Simon H.A., Lave L. (1998). Perceiving and managing business risks: differences between entrepreneurs and bankers. J Econ Behav Organ 33(2): pp. 207–225.
Sarasvathy S.D. (2007). Effectuation: the logic of entrepreneurial expertise. Routledge, Cheltenham.
Simon M., Houghton S.M., Acquin K. (2000). Cognitive biases, risk perception, and venture formation: how individuals decide to start companies. J Bus Ventur 15(2): pp. 113–134.
Fiske S.T., Taylor S.E. (1991). Social cognition, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Showers C., Cantor N. (1985). Social cognition: a look at motivated strategies. Annu Rev Psychol 36: pp. 275–305.
Tetlock P.E. (1990). Some thoughts on fourth-generational models of social cognition. Psychol Inq 1(3): pp. 212–214.
Gregoire, D. A., Corbett, A. C., & McMullen, J. S. (2011). The cognitive perspective in entrepreneurship: An agenda for future research. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6), pp. 1443–1477.
Mitchell, R. K., Smith, J. B., Morse, E. A., Seawright, K. W., Peredo, A. M., & McKenzie, B. (2002). Are entrepreneurial cognitions universal? Assessing entrepreneurial cognitions across cultures. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(4), 9–32.
Davidsson, P. (2003). The domain of entrepreneurship research: Some suggestions. Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, 6(3), pp. 315–372.
Shane, S. (2000). Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science, 11(4), pp. 448–469.
Shane S, Venkataraman S (2000) The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Acad Manage Rev 25: pp. 217–226.
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Making fast strategic decisions in high-velocity environments. Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), pp. 543–576.
Haynie, J. M., Shepherd, D. A., Mosakowski, E., & Earley, P. C. (2010). A situated metacognitive model of the entrepreneurial mindset. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(2), pp. 217–229.
Baron R.A. (2008). The role of affect in the entrepreneurial process. Acad Manag Rev 33(2): pp. 328–340.
Cardon, M. S., Wincent, J., Singh, J., & Drnovsek, M. (2009). The nature and experience of entrepreneurial passion. Academy of Management Review, 34(3), pp. 511–532.
Shepherd D.A. (2003). Learning from business failure. Propositions of grief-recovery for the self-employed. Acad Manag Rev 28(2): pp. 318–418.
Shepherd, D. A., Patzelt, H., & Wolfe, M. (2011). Moving forward from project failure: Negative emotions, affective commitment, and learning from the experience. Academy of Management Journal, 54(6), pp. 1229–1259.
Shepherd, D. A. (2015). Party On! A call for entrepreneurship research that is more interactive, activity based, cognitively hot, compassionate, and prosocial. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(4), pp. 489–507.
Komisar R. (2000). Goodbye career, hello success. Harv Bus Rev 78: pp. 160–174.
Rai S.K. (2008). Indian entrepreneurs: an empirical investigation of entrepreneur’s age and firm entry, type of ownership and risk behavior. J Serv Res 8: pp. 213–228.
Schindehutte, M., Morris, M., & Allen, J. (2006). Beyond achievement: Entrepreneurship as extreme experience. Small Business Economics, 27(4), pp. 349–368.
Kato S., Wiklund, J. (2011). Doing good to feel good: a theory of entrepreneurial action based in hedonic psychology. Paper presented at the Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference, Syracuse, NY.
Frese M., Gielnik M. (2011). Entrepreneurial passion and effort: testing a dynamic model in the new venture development process. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX.
Gaglio C.M. (2004). The role of mental simulations and counterfactual thinking in the opportunity identification process. Entrep Theory Pract 28: pp. 533–552.
Ashby F.G., Isen A.M., Turken A.U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychol Rev 106(3): pp. 529–550.
Ashby F.G., Valentin V.V., Turken A.U. (2002). The effects of positive affect on arousal and working memory. In: Moore S, Oaksford M (eds) Emotional cognition: from brain to behaviour. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 245–287.
Estrada C.A., Isen A.M., Young M.J. (1997). Positive affect facilitates integration of information and decreases anchoring in reasoning among physicians. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 72: pp. 117–135.
Isen A.M. (2000). Some perspectives on positive affect and self-regulation. Psychol Inq 11: pp. 184 187.
Isen A.M., Shalker T.E., Clark M.S., Karp L. (1978). Affect, accessibility of material in memory, and behavior: a cognitive loop? J Pers Soc Psychol 36: pp. 1–12.
Isen A.M., Patrick R. (1983). The effect of positive feeling on risk-taking: when the chips are down. Organ Behav Hum Perform 31: pp. 194–202.
Amabile T.M., Barsade S.G., Mueller J.S., Staw B.M. (2005). Affect and creativity at work. Adm Sci Q 50: pp. 367–403.
Simonton D.K. (1999). Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Oxford University Press, New York.
Podoynitsyna K., van der Bij H., Song M. (2012). The role of mixed emotions in the risk perception of novice and serial entrepreneurs. Entrep Theory Pract 36(1): pp. 115–140.
Fong C.T. (2006). The effects of emotional ambivalence on creativity. Acad Manag J 49: pp. 1016–1030.
Fong C.T., Tiedens L.Z. (2002). Dueling experiences and dual ambivalences: emotional and motivational ambivalence of women in high status positions. Motiv Emot 26(1): pp. 105–121.
Doern R., Goss D. (2013). The role of negative emotions in the social processes of entrepreneurship: power rituals and shame-related appeasement behaviors. Entrep Theory Pract 38(4): pp. 863–890.
Baron, R. A. (2006). Opportunity recognition as pattern recognition: How entrepreneurs “connect the dots” to identify new business opportunities. Academy of Management Perspectives, 20(1), pp. 104–119.
Patzelt, H., & Shepherd, D. A. (2011). Negative emotions of an entrepreneurial career: Self-employment and regulatory coping behaviors. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(2), pp. 226–238.
Shepherd D.A. (2009). Grief recovery from a loss of a family business: a multi- and meso-level theory. J Bus Ventur 24: pp. 81–97.
Shepherd D.A., Wiklund J., Haynie J.M. (2009). Moving forward: balancing the financial and emotional costs of business failure. J Bus Ventur 24: pp. 134–148.
Foo, M. D., Uy, M. A., & Baron, R. A. (2009). How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study of entrepreneurs’ affects and venture effort. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), pp. 1086–1094.
Boyd, D. P., & Gumpert, D. E. (1984). The loneliness of the startup entrepreneur. In J. A. Homaday, F. Tarpley Jr., J. A. Timmons, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research (pp. 478–487). Wellesley: Babson College.
Schwarz N., Clore G.L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: informative and directive functions of affective states. J Pers Soc Psychol 45: pp. 513–523.
Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2(3), pp. 300–319.
Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2004). Coping: Pitfalls and promise. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, pp. 745–774.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Vallerand, R. J., Blanchard, C., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., Ratelle, C., Léonard, M., et al. (2003). Les passions de l’ame: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(4), pp. 756–767.
Shepherd, D., & Haynie, J. M. (2009). Birds of a feather don’t always flock together: Identity management in entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(4), pp. 316–337.
Ward, T.B. (2004). Cognition, creativity, and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), pp. 173–188.
Fredrickson B.L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Am Psychol 56: pp. 218–226.
Bharadwaj, S., & Menon, A. (2000). Making innovation happen in organizations: Individual creativity mechanisms, organizational creativity mechanisms or both? Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17(6), pp. 424–434.
Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L. Y. (1979). Judgment of contingency in depressed and no depressed students: Sadder but wiser? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108(4), 441 p.
McMullen, J. S., & Shepherd, D. A. (2006). Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Academy of Management Review, 31(1), pp. 132–152.
Mullins, J. W., & Forlani, D. (2005). Missing the boat or sinking the boat: A study of new venture decision making. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(1), pp. 47–69.
Choi, Y.R., & Shepherd, D.A. (2004). Entrepreneurs’ decisions to exploit opportunities. Journal of Management, 30(3), pp. 377–395.
Gupta V.K., Goktan A.B., Gunay G. (2014). Gender differences in evaluation of new business opportunity: a stereotype threat perspective. J Bus Ventur 29(2): pp. 273–288.
Haynie J.M., Shepherd D.A., McMullen J.S. (2009). An opportunity for me? The role of resources in opportunity evaluation decisions. J Manag Stud 46(3): pp. 337–361.
Keh H.T., Foo M.D., Lim B.C. (2002). Opportunity evaluation under risky conditions: the cognitive processes of entrepreneurs. Entrep Theory Pract 27(2): pp. 125–148.
Shepherd D.A., McMullen J.S., Jennings P.D. (2007). The formation of opportunity beliefs: overcoming ignorance and reducing doubt. Strateg Entrep J 1(1-2): pp. 75–95.
Wood M.S., Williams D.W. (2014). Opportunity evaluation as rule-based decision making. J Manag Stud 51(4): pp. 573–602.
Foo M.D. (2011). Emotions and entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation. Entrep Theory Pract 35: pp. 375–393.
Grichnik D., Smeja A., Welpe I. (2010). The importance of being emotional: how do emotions affect entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation and exploitation? J Econ Behav Organ 76: pp. 15–29.
Welpe I.M., Spörrle M., Grichnik D., Michl T., Audretsch D. (2012). Emotions and opportunities: the interplay of opportunity evaluation, fear, joy, and anger as antecedent of entrepreneurial exploitation. Entrep Theory Pract 36(1): pp. 69–96.
Lerner J.S., Keltner D. (2000). Beyond valence: a model of emotion-specific influences on judgment and choice. Cognit Emot 14: pp. 473–493.
Lerner J.S., Keltner D. (2001). Fear, anger, and risk. J Pers Soc Psychol 81(1): pp. 146–159.
Lerner J.S., Small D.A., Loewenstein G. (2004). Heart strings and purse strings. Carryover effects of emotions on economic decisions. Psychol Sci 15:337–341.
Baron R.A., Ensley M.D. (2006). Opportunity recognition as the detection of meaningful patterns: evidence from comparison of novice and experienced entrepreneurs. Manag Sci 52: pp. 1331 1344.
Behrens, J., & Patzelt, H. (2017). Corporate entrepreneurship managers’ project terminations: Integrating portfolio-level, individual-level, and firm-level effects. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.
Shepherd, D., Patzelt, H., & Baron, R. (2013). “I care about nature, but …”: Disengaging values in assessing opportunities that cause harm. Academy of Management Journal, 56(5), pp. 1251–1273.
Klaukien, A., Shepherd, D. A., & Patzelt, H. (2013). Passion for work, nonwork-related excitement, and innovation managers’ decision to exploit new product opportunities. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(3), pp. 574–588.
Mitchell, J. R., & Shepherd, D. A. (2010). To thine own self be true: Images of self, images of opportunity, and entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(1), pp. 138–154.
McKelvie, A., Haynie, J. M., & Gustavsson, V. (2011). Unpacking the uncertainty construct: Implications for entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(3), pp. 273–292.
Shepherd, D. A., & Zacharakis, A. (1997). Conjoint analysis: A window of opportunity for entrepreneurship research. In J. Katz (Ed.), Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth (Vol. 3, pp. 203–248). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Lohrke, F. T., Holloway, B. B., & Woolley, T. W. (2010). Conjoint analysis in entrepreneurship research a review and research agenda. Organizational Research Methods, 13(1), pp. 16–30.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.