Особливості кліматичних змін в Україні: сценарії, наслідки для природи та агроекосистем

Svitlana Boychenko, Volodymyr Voloshchuk, Yaroslav Movchan, Nadiia Serdjuchenko, Vasyl Tkachenko, Oksana Tyshchenko, Serhij Savchenko

Анотація


Мета: Метою дослідження є аналіз основних особливостей зміни клімату в Україні в ХХ-ХХI століттях, і отримати оцінку можливих регіональних екологічних наслідків під впливом глобального потепління. Методи: Емпіричні константи в побудованих напівемпіричних моделях були оцінені на основі статистичного аналізу матеріалів метеорологічних спостережень на метеостанціях України протягом XX ст. і початку XXІ ст. Отримані результати використовуються для побудови сценаріїв можливих зміни клімату в Україні при глобальному потеплінні в найближчому майбутньому. Результати: Кліматичні умови України відреагували на глобальне потепління (середньорічна температура підвищилася на 0,6± 0,2оС/за 100 років і незначне збільшення річної суми опадів на 5-7% протягом 100 років). Особливості трансформації сезонного ходу кліматичних полів температури і атмосферних опадів в Україні розглядається також. Беручи до уваги глобальні зміни клімату, пропонуються регіональні сценарії клімату (температура і атмосферні опади) в Україні до 2050 року. Обговорення: Аналіз основних екологічних наслідків від глобального потепління, які вже сталися або можуть проявитися в найближчому майбутньому в Україні, проведено: підняття рівня Чорного і Азовського морів; просторова трансформація структури степових фітосистем; зміни в північній частині Азовського моря екосистем морських кіс; збудження катастрофічних погодних явищ в Україні, розвиток опустелювання в південних і південно-східних областях України, вплив змін клімату на сільське господарство, аспекти водних ресурсів.


Ключові слова


адаптація; атмосферні опади; водні ресурси; екологічні наслідки; зміна клімату; зміна рослинності степів; катастрофічні явища; опустелювання; рівні Чорного і Азовського морів; температура; сільське господарство; сценарії

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